Stigma & Mental Illness

Selfstigma and the “why try” effect: Impact on life goals and evidencebased practices.

Corrigan, P. W., Larson, J. E., & Ruesch, N. (2009). World Psychiatry, 8(2), 75-81.
Many individuals with mental illnesses are troubled by self-stigma and the subsequent processes that accompany this stigma: low self-esteem and self-efficacy. “Why try” is the overarching phenomenon of interest here, encompassing self-stigma, mediating processes, and their effect on goal-related behavior. Read article here.


Challenging the public stigma of mental illness: A meta-analysis of outcome studies.

Corrigan, P. W., Morris, S. B., Michaels, P. J., Rafacz, J. D., & Rüsch, N. (2012). Psychiatric Services, 63(10), 963-973.
This article reports on a meta-analysis that examined the effects of anti-stigma approaches that included protest or social activism, education of the public, and contact with persons with mental illness. Read article here.

Understanding the impact of stigma on people with mental illness.

Corrigan, P. W., & Watson, A. C. (2002). World Psychiatry, 1(1), 16.
People with serious mental illness struggle with both the symptoms of the disease and the stereotypes and prejudice that result from misconceptions about mental illness. As a result of both, opportunities that define a meaningful quality of life, including a good job, safe housing, satisfactory health care, and affiliation with a diverse group of people, are often affected. Read article here.

Facility based cross-sectional study of self stigma among people with mental illness: towards patient empowerment approach.

Girma, E., Tesfaye, M., Froeschl, G., Möller-Leimkühler, A. M., Dehning, S., & Müller, N. (2013). International journal of mental health systems, 7(1), 21.
Self stigma among people with mental illness results from multiple cognitive and environmental factors and processes. It can negatively affect adherence to psychiatric services, self esteem, hope, social integration and quality of life of people with mental illness. Read article here. 

Do stigma and other perceived barriers to mental health care differ across Armed Forces?

Gould, M., Adler, A., Zamorski, M., Castro, C., Hanily, N., Steele, N. & Greenberg, N. (2010). Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 103(4), 148-156.
Barriers to care continue to be a major issue for service personnel within Western military forces. Although there are policy, procedural and cultural differences between Armed Forces, the nations studied appear to share some similarities in terms of perceived stigma and barriers to psychological care. Further research to understand reporting patterns and subgroup differences is proposed. Read article here.

Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions.

Graham, T., Elaine, B., Aliya, K., & Elanor, L. H. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 2.
Stigma in relation to mental illness can be understood as a combination of ignorance, prejudice and discrimination. Candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatization and discrimination at the individual, community, state and national level.  Read article here.

The stigma of mental health problems and other barriers to care in the UK Armed Forces.

Iversen, A. C., van Staden, L., Hughes, J. H., Greenberg, N., Hotopf, M., Rona, R. J. & Fear, N. T. (2011). BMC health services research, 11(1), 31.
Despite recent efforts to de-stigmatize mental disorders in the military, anticipated stigma and practical barriers to consulting stand in the way of access to care for some Service personnel. Read article here.

The public’s stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental disorders: how important are biomedical conceptualizations?

Jorm, A. F., & Griffiths, K. M. (2008). Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 118(4), 315-321.
The author questions both the scientific evidence and potential effect of the current trend to change the language used to describe certain serious mental illnesses to “brain diseases.” It is argued that changing nomenclature will not reduce stigma unless treatment options for the seriously mentally ill are improved. Read article here. 

The Stigma Scale: development of a standardized measure of the stigma of mental illness.

King, M., Dinos, S., Shaw, J., Watson, R., Stevens, S., Passetti, F. & Serfaty, M. (2007). The British Journal of Psychiatry, 190(3), 248-254.
There is concern about the stigma of mental illness, but it is difficult to measure stigma consistently.  This study aims to develop a standardized instrument to measure the stigma of mental illness. Read article here.


How does the brain regulate negative bias to stigma?

Krendl, A. C., Kensinger, E. A., & Ambady, N. (2012). Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 7(6), 715-726.
This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine whether regulating negative bias to stigmatized individuals has a unique neural activity profile from general emotion regulation.  Findings suggest that regulating negative affect toward stigmatized targets may occur relatively more quickly than regulating negative affect toward non-stigmatized targets. Read article here.


Racial/Ethnic Disparity Trends in Children’s Mental Health Care Access and Expenditures from 2002-2007.

Le Cook, B; Barry, C.L.; Busch, S.H. (2013.) Health Services Research, 48(1):129-149.
This article explores the trends in disparities in children’s mental health care, and the underlying care-seeking behaviors that lead to treatment – or lack of it. It suggests the stigma in minority communities may impact access to care. Read article here.

Stigma and discrimination in people suffering with a mood disorder: a cross-sectional study.

Lazowski, L., Koller, M., Stuart, H., & Milev, R. (2012). Depression Research and Treatment, vol.2012, Article ID 724848, 9 pages.
This study characterizes the extent to which individuals with bipolar disorder and depression are stigmatized, determines factors related to higher levels of stigmatization, and assesses the reliability of the Inventory of Stigmatizing Experiences amongst people with a mood disorder. Read article here.


Constructs and concepts comprising the stigma of mental illness.

Michaels, P. J., López, M., Rüsch, N., & Corrigan, P. W. (2012). Psychology, Society & Education, 4(2), 183-194.
Examines how anti-stigma initiatives with more tailored content for specific groups (e.g., police officers vs. general public) may diminish negative consequences of mental illness stigma by providing more concrete ways to help stigmatized people. Read article here.


Stigma and discrimination.

Miller, L., & Jones, P. (2005). Doctors as Patients, 61.
Stigma remains one of the most significant and persistent barriers challenges faced by individuals with psychiatric disorders. Despite research and advocacy efforts to reduce stigma, stereotypes persist, leading to prejudice and discrimination. Read article here.


Examining differences in the stigma of depression and schizophrenia.

Norman, R. M., Windell, D., & Manchanda, R. (2012). International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 58(1), 69-78.
Schizophrenia is stigmatized far more than depression, but there has been little investigation into the reasons why. Social appropriateness, danger and prognosis, which have implications for likely costs and benefits of interaction, seem to influence social response to the disorders more than beliefs concerning causation or continuity with normal experience. Read article here.


How does stigma affect people with mental illness?

Parle, S. (2012). Nursing times, 108(28), 12.
People with mental health problems experience many different types of stigma. This article explores the attitudes and beliefs of the general public towards people with mental illness, and the lived experiences and feelings of service users and their relatives. Read article here.


In Our Own Voice-Family Companion: Reducing self-stigma of family members of persons with serious mental illness.

Perlick, D. A., Nelson, A. H., Mattias, K., Selzer, J., Kalvin, C., Wilber, C. H. & Corrigan, P. W. (2011). Psychiatric Services, 62(12), 1456-1462.
This article reports preliminary findings from a novel, family peer-based intervention designed to reduce self-stigma among family members of people with serious mental illness. Read article here.


Stigma as a barrier to recovery: adverse effects of perceived stigma on social adaptation of persons diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder.
Perlick, D. A., Rosenheck, R. A., Clarkin, J. F., Sirey, J. A., Salahi, J., Struening, E. L. & Link, B. G. (2001). Psychiatric Services, 52(12), 1627-1632.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of concerns about stigma on social adaptation among persons with a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder. Read article here.


Self-stigma, group identification, perceived legitimacy of discrimination and mental health service use.

Rüsch, N., Corrigan, P. W., Wassel, A., Michaels, P., Larson, J. E., Olschewski, M. & Batia, K. (2009). The British Journal of Psychiatry, 195(6), 551-552.
Evidence demonstrates that self-stigma and stigma-related cognitions predict service use among people with serious and chronic mental illness, independent of baseline psychopathology, diagnosis and the level of perceived stigma. Read article here.


Perceived stigma as a predictor of treatment discontinuation in young and older outpatients with depression.

Sirey, J. A., Bruce, M. L., Alexopoulos, G. S., Perlick, D. A., Raue, P., Friedman, S. J. & Meyers, B. S. (2001). American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(3), 479-481.
An examination of the extent to which perceived stigma affected treatment discontinuation in young and older adults with major depression. Read article here.


Fighting stigma and discrimination is fighting for mental health.

Stuart, H. (2005). Canadian Public Policy, 31(s1), 21-28.
This paper reviews the origins of stigma and discrimination and the main consequences for people with mental illness and those around them. Read article here.


Stigma shrinks my bubble: A qualitative study of understandings and experiences of stigma and bipolar disorder.

Suto, M. (2012). Stigma Research and Action, 2(2).
This qualitative study contributes to the stigma and bipolar disorder literature focused on understanding structural, social, and self-stigma experiences from the perspectives of individuals living with bipolar disorder and their family members. Read article here.


Stigma and violence: isn’t it time to connect the dots?

Torrey, E. F. (2011). Schizophrenia bulletin, 37(5), 892-896.
Stigma against mentally ill persons is a major problem and has increased in incidence. Multiple studies have suggested that the perception of violent behavior by seriously mentally ill individuals is an important cause of stigma. It is also known that treating seriously mentally ill people decreases violent behavior. Therefore, authors propose that the most effective way to decrease stigma is to make sure that patients receive adequate treatment. Read article here.


Is stigma internalized? The longitudinal impact of public stigma on self-stigma.

Vogel, D. L., Bitman, R. L., Hammer, J. H., & Wade, N. G. (2013). Journal of counseling psychology, 60(2), 311.
Stigma is considered an important barrier to seeking mental health services. Two types of stigma exist: public stigma and self-stigma. the goal of this research was to examine the relationship between public stigma and self-stigma over time. These findings suggest that if self-stigma develops from public stigma, interventions could be developed to interrupt this process at the individual level and reduce or eliminate self-stigma despite perceptions of public stigma. Read article here.


Mental health consumers’ experience of stigma.

Wahl, O. F. (1999). Schizophrenia bulletin, 25(3), 467.
Results of a nationwide survey of mental health consumers concerning experiences of stigma from a variety of sources, including communities, families, churches, coworkers and caregivers. Read article here.


Measuring mental illness stigma.

Link, B.Q.; Yang, L.H.; Jo C. Phelan, J.C.; and Collins, P.Y. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 30(3):511-541, 20.
This article is designed to assist researchers in selecting or creating measures that can address critical research questions regarding stigma. Read article here.


A community needs assessment for rural mental health promotion.

Barry MMDoherty AHope ASixsmith JKelleher CC. Health Educ Res. 2000 Jun;15(3):293-304.
This paper explores the mental health perceptions and beliefs of 1000 people through a needs assessment of a rural community in Ireland. Read article here.


Association between public views of mental illness and self-stigma among individuals with mental illness in 14 European countries.

Evans-Lacko, S. et al. (2012.) Psychological Medicine, 42(8):1741-52. Large-scale anti-stigma campaigns involving knowledge, attitudes and behavior may counter the public’s negative feedback from public stigma, and therefore reduce self-stigma among people with mental health problems. Read abstract here.


Discrimination in healthcare against people with mental illness.

Thornicroft, G., Rose, D., & Kassa, A. (2007.) International Review of Psychiatry; 19(2): 113–122. Read article here. This article explores the association between low rates of help-seeking behavior among people who think they may have a mental illness and negative attitudes among mental health staff.