Research - Race and Identity

Cultural context and a critical approach to eliminating health disparities

Griffith DM1, Johnson J, Ellis KR, and Schulz AJ. (2010). Ethnic Disparity;20(1):71-6.
The authors highlight the intersection of cultural and institutional racism as a mechanism through which racial inequities in social determinants of health persist. This distinction explains processes and structures that contribute to racial disparities persisting across time and outcomes. Read abstract here.

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Perceived discrimination and depression among low-income Latina male-to-female transgender women

Mohsen Bazargan, M. and Galvan, F. (2012). BMC Public Health12:663. DOI: 1186/1471-2458-12-663.

Researchers asked 220 male to female Latina transgender people living in California to complete a questionnaire. Findings showed increased depression that correlated with perceived depression. Read article here.

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Implicit Bias among Physicians and its Prediction of Thrombolysis Decisions for Black and White Patients

Green, A. R., Carney, D. R., Pallin, D. J., Ngo, L. H., Raymond, K. L., Iezzoni, L. I., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(9), 1231–1238.

This study showed unconscious or implicit racial bias among physicians. The researchers used an internet-based tool comprising a clinical vignette of a patient presenting to the emergency department with an acute coronary syndrome, followed by a questionnaire and three Implicit Association Tests (IATs). Read article here.

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Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination

Bertrand, Marianne and Mullainathan, Sendhil, (2003). MIT Department of Economics Working Paper No. 03-22.

The researchers performed a field experiment in the Boston and Chicago areas by assigning either African American or White sounding names to job applicants’ resumes. They then evaluated employers’ responses: The applicants with White sounding names received 50% more callbacks for interviews.  Read article here.

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Criminal Stigma, Race, Gender and Employment: An Expanded Assessment of the Consequences of Imprisonment for Employment

Scott H. Decker, SH., Spohn, C., Ortiz, NR., Hedberg, E. (2014.) US Department of Justice

The authors conducted an extensive multi-part research study on the impact of a criminal record on employment, with comparisons of Blacks, Whites and Hispanics, as well as often unexamined women. The study included an assessment of on-line job applications, in-person job interviews and surveys of employers. Read report here. 

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The Mark of a Criminal Record

Pager, Devah (2003.)  American Journal of Sociology, 108,5: 937–75.

This article focuses on the consequences of incarceration for the employment outcomes of black and white job seekers. The present study adopts an experimental audit approach—in which matched pairs of individuals applied for real entry-level jobs—to formally test the degree to which a criminal record affects subsequent employment opportunities. A criminal record presents a major barrier to employment, with important implications for racial disparities.  Read article here. 

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Stigma experience in skin disorders: an Indian perspective

Chaturvedi SK, Singh G, Gupta N, (2005.) Dermatologic Clinics;23(4):635-42
Social stigma toward dermatologic disorders in the Indian society is quite widespread, especially toward leprosy. Dermatologists are expected to consider quality of life issues along with social aspects, nature of disorder, efficacy, and tolerability of various therapeutic options to optimize relief and comfort to their patient. Read abstract here.

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Race, socioeconomic status, and health: The added effects of racism and discrimination

Williams, DR (1999.)  Annals New York Academy of Sciences; 896, 173-188.

Racism can negatively impact health for racial minorities due to: racial bias in medical care, stress of discrimination, self-stigma. Lower socio-economic status is an additional burden. Read article here. 

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Influence of patient race and ethnicity on clinical assessment in patients with affective disorders

Michael A. Gara; William A. Vega; Stephan Arndt; Michael Escamilla; David E. Fleck; William B. Lawson, MD; Ira Lesser; Harold W. Neighbors; Daniel R. Wilson; Lesley M. Arnold; Stephen M. Strakowski, (2012.) Arch Gen Psychiatry, 69(6):593-600.

The authors found that African American subjects were diagnosed more frequently with disorders in the schizophrenia spectrum than did non-Latino white subjects, even after controlling for the presence or absence of serious affective disorder and other clinical and demographic confounds. The authors conclude that clinicians may overvalue psychotic symptoms in African American patients, and skew diagnoses toward schizophrenia-spectrum conditions, even with similar levels of affective symptoms as White subjects. Their exploratory analysis suggests that this effect was specific to African American subjects and did not extend to Latino subjects.

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Racism and research: The case of the Tuskegee syphilis study.

Brandt, AM (1978.) The Hastings Center Report 8(6): 21-29.

This article examines the underlying racism behind the 1932-1972 infamous research study in which the US Public Health Service, in collaboration with the Tuskegee Institute, withheld treatment from 400 Black men from Alabama who had syphilis in order to study the disease. The author concludes that the study revealed much more about the pathology of racism than it did about the pathology of syphilis. Read article here.

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When do the stigmatized stigmatize? The ironic effects of being accountable to (perceived) majority group prejudice-expression norms.

Shapiro, J R and Neuberg, S L (2008.) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(4), 877-898.
The authors conducted four studies involving race and ethnicity. They concluded that in order to avoid discrimination themselves, and to conform to their perception that the majority endorses discrimination, there is an increased likeliness that the minority group that is often-stigmatized will stigmatize others. Read article here. 

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A rose by any other name?: The consequences of subtyping “African-Americans” from “Blacks”

Hall, EV, Phillips, KW, and Townsend, SSM (2015). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 56:183-190.

The authors conducted four studies and explored how people perceive the terms “Black” and “African American.” They argue that Whites view the term Black more negatively than the term African American. Read article here. 

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Stigma and racial/ethnic HIV disparities: Moving toward resilience.

Earnshaw, VA, Bogart, LM, Dovidio, JF, and Williams, DR (2013.) American Psychologist, 68(4) 225-236.

The researchers introduce the Stigma and HIV Disparities Model to describe how societal stigma related to race and ethnicity is associated with racial/ethnic HIV disparities via its manifestations due to residential segregation, discrimination and self-stigma. The authors address multiple, co-occurring stigmas and suggest that strength-based interventions can reduce disparity. Read abstract here.

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The psychiatric rehabilitation of African Americans with severe mental illness

Whitley, R., and Lawson, WB (2010.) Psychiatric Services, May;61(5):508-11

The authors report that successful rehabilitation of African Americans with severe mental illnesses requires three levels of intervention: macro, provider, and patient. Further, the areas of cross-cultural communication, discrimination, explanatory models, stigma, and family involvement must also be examined. Read article here. 

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A Model of (Often Mixed) Stereotype Content: Competence and Warmth Respectively Follow from Status and Competition

Fiske, S.T., A.J.C. Cuddy, P. Glick, and J. Xu. (2002.) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82(6): 878–902.

Stereotype Content Model hypothesizes that competence and warmth determine stereotyping, depending on the balance (high or low) of each. The researchers explored  gender, ethnicity, race, class, age, and disability as they pertained to various combinations of competence and warmth. Read article here. 

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To Disclose or Not to Disclose Biracial Identity: The Effect of Biracial Disclosure on Perceiver Evaluations and Target Responses

Sanchez, D.T., Bonham, C. (2009.) Journal of Social Issues; 65(1):129-149.

Researchers compared three studies of biracial college applicants and found that biracial people are considered more negatively compared to monoracial people. The authors discuss the findings in relation to theories related to stereotypes and devalued identities. Read article here.


Beliefs, attitudes and phobias among medical and psychology students toward people with obesity

Soto, L., Armendariz-Anguiano, AL., Bacardi-Gascon, M., and Jiminez Cruz, A (2014.) Nutr Hosp.; 1;30:37-41.
Researchers observed phobias and negative attitudes of Mexican medical and psychology students toward people who have obesity. Read abstract here.

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Cross-cultural attitudes towards suicide: the SOQ and a personal odyssey.

Domino, G. (2005.) Archives of Suicide Research, 9(2):107-22.

This paper reviews the development of the Suicide Attitude Questionnaire (SOQ), and its benefits for various cultures. Read abstract here.

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Trajectories of body mass and self-concept in Black and White girls: The lingering effects of stigma.

A., Hendrix, K. L., & Schafer, M. H. (2012). Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 53(1), 2-16.

As a stigmatizing condition, obesity may lead to the internalization of devalued labels and threats to self-concept. Modified labeling theory suggests that the effects of stigma may outlive direct manifestations of the discredited characteristic itself. We found that discrepancy was higher and self-esteem lower in formerly obese girls compared to girls always in the normal range and comparable to chronically obese girls. Read article here.

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A Culture of Stigma: Black Women and Mental Health.

Okeke, A. (2013). Undergraduate Research Awards. Paper 13.

This project explores the history of medical experimentation on African Americans, the resulting distrust of medical institutions, and the stereotypes of Black women that may affect cultural views of mental illness. Using the case study method, this research suggests that the intersection of these factors influences Black women’s pursuit of and experiences with mental healthcare. Read article here.


“We’d Be Free”: Narratives of Life Without Homophobia, Racism, or Sexism.

Meyer, I. H., Ouellette, S. C., Haile, R., & McFarlane, T. A. (2011). Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 8(3), 204-214.

Stigma and social inequality deprive disadvantaged social groups of a sense of social well-being. Read article here.

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Racial stigma and its consequences.

Loury, G. C. (2005). Focus, 24(1), 1-6.

The racial stigma afflicting African Americans suggests that any successful and consistent theory of racial inequality must account for the processes that systematically block realization of full human potential. Read article here.


Racial/Ethnic Disparity Trends in Children’s Mental Health Care Access and Expenditures from 2002 to 2007

Le Cook, B; Barry, C.L.; Busch, S.H. (2013.) Health Services Research, 48(1):129-149.
This article explores the trends in disparities in children’s mental health care, and the underlying care-seeking behaviors that lead to treatment – or lack of it. It suggests the stigma in minority communities may impact access to care. Read manuscript here.

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