Research - HIV/AIDS

The Denver Principles

No authors named, 1983. National Lesbian and Gay Health Conference, Denver.

The Denver Principles, written in 1983 by people with AIDS who attended the National Lesbian and Gay Health Conference, held in Denver, Colorado that year. This self-empowering platform took charge of the conversation and challenged the stigma experienced by people with AIDS. Read The Denver Principles here. 


Perceived HIV stigma in AIDS caregiving dyads

Wight, RG., Aneshensel, CS., Murphy, DA., Miller-Martinez, D., and Beals, KP ( 2006). Social Science and Medicine: 62,2: 444-446.

This study examined the stigma experienced by dyads of adult sons and husbands with HIV and their caregiving mid-life mothers or wives. The stigma experienced by the person with HIV was greater than that of the caregiver, and the stigma perceived by the wife was greater than that of the mother. Resources addressing stigma should incorporate these factors. Read abstract here.


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An exploratory survey measuring stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa: the People Living with HIV Stigma Index

Dos Santos, MLKruger, P, Mellors, SE, Wolvaardt, G and Elna van der Ryst, E (2014). BMC Public Health, 14:80.   

This study assessed current and emerging HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination trends in South Africa as experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Findings suggest that PLHIV in this population experience significant levels of stigma and discrimination that negatively impact on their health, working and family life, as well as their access to health services. Internalised stigma was prominent, with many participants blaming themselves for their status. Read article here.

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Concealable Stigmatized Identities and Psychological Well-Being

Quinn, DM, and Earnshaw, VA (2013.) Social and Personality Psychology Compass; 7(1): 40–51.

The authors discuss how identities that are socially devalued or negatively stereotyped affect psychological well-being, They explore existing research and areas to explore in the future.  Read article here.

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Understanding Concealable Stigmatized Identities: The Role of Identity in Psychological, Physical, and Behavioral Outcomes

Quinn, DM, and Earnshaw, VA (2011.) Social Issues and Policy Review, 5, 1:160–190

The authors argue that stigma, discrimination, disclosure reactions and positive information, coupled with the importance of the identity determine how people with concealable stigmatized identities (e.g. mental illness, chronic disease) influence their psychological, physical, and behavioral health outcomes. Suggestions for policy implications are included.  Read article here.


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The game of fear, blame and shame: stigma of HIV, a major public health debacle

Rana, S, and Parikh, C, (2014.) Journal of Pediatric Neonatal Care, 1(1): 00003

The authors share stories of how people with HIV/AIDS have been stigmatized. Read editorial here. 


A method for the quantitative analysis of the layering of HIV-related stigma

Reidpath, DD, and Chan, KY (2005.) AIDS Care; 17(4): 425-432.

The authors explore ways of analyzing the intersectionality of multiple stigmas and their impact on HIV-related prevention and intervention programs. Read article here. 


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HIV stigma mechanisms and well-being among PLWH: A test of the HIV stigma framework

Earnshaw VA, Smith LR, Chaudoir SR, Amico KR, Copenhaver MM, (2013.) HIV stigma mechanisms and well-being among PLWH: A test of the HIV stigma framework. AIDS Behavior; 17:1785-95.

The researchers interviewed 95 people who had HIV and assessed the HIV Stigma Framework: how each stigma mechanism (internalized, enacted and anticipated) affected their health and well-being. Internalized stigma was associated with affective and behavioral health and well being, while enacted and anticipated stigma associated with physical health and well-being. The authors concluded that understanding the affects of different types of stigma will lead to improved interventions.  Read article here. 

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Stigma and racial/ethnic HIV disparities: Moving toward resilience.

Earnshaw, VA, Bogart, LM, Dovidio, JF, and Williams, DR (2013.) American Psychologist, 68(4) 225-236.

The researchers introduce the Stigma and HIV Disparities Model to describe how societal stigma related to race and ethnicity is associated with racial/ethnic HIV disparities via its manifestations due to residential segregation, discrimination and self-stigma. The authors address multiple, co-occurring stigmas and suggest that strength-based interventions can reduce disparity. Read abstract here.

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From Conceptualizing to Measuring HIV Stigma: A Review of HIV Stigma Mechanism Measures

Earnshaw, VA, and Chaudoir, SR (2009.) AIDS and Behavior, 13(6)1160-1177.

The HIV Stigma Framework explores how the stigma of HIV elicits a series of stigma mechanisms, which in turn lead to deleterious outcomes for HIV uninfected and infected people.  Read abstract here. 



Trauma, mental health, distrust, and stigma among HIV-positive persons: implications for effective care.

Whetten, K., Reif, S., Whetten, R., & Murphy-McMillan, L. K. (2008). Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(5), 531-538.

Individuals living with HIV often have complicated histories, including traumatic events, mental illness and stigma. As the medical community adapts to managing HIV as a chronic disease, understanding how these experiences affect adherence to treatment regimens, greater HIV risk behavior, and lower patient quality of life become critical to HIV care and prevention. Read article here.


HIV/AIDS stigma: an impediment to public health.

Valdiserri, R. O. (2002). American journal of public health, 92(3), 341.

Stigma is not new to public health, nor is it unique to HIV/AIDS, but undoubtedly, stigma needs to be recognized as a continuing impediment to HIV prevention and care programs. Read article here.


Social stigma concerns and HIV medication adherence.

Rintamaki, L. S., Davis, T. C., Skripkauskas, S., Bennett, C. L., & Wolf, M. S. (2006). AIDS Patient Care & STDs, 20(5), 359-368.

The threat of social stigma may prevent people living with HIV from revealing their status to others and serve as a barrier to HIV treatment adherence. Clinical care directed to individuals living with HIV should therefore include considerations for patient sensitivity to social stigma. Read article here.


Stigma in the HIV/AIDS epidemic: a review of the literature and recommendations for the way forward.

Mahajan, A. P., Sayles, J. N., Patel, V. A., Remien, R. H., Ortiz, D., Szekeres, G., & Coates, T. J. (2008). AIDS (London, England), 22(Suppl 2), S67.

This paper reviews the scientific literature on HIV/AIDS related stigma to document the current state of research, identify gaps in the available evidence, and highlight promising strategies to address stigma. Read article here.


Internalized stigma among people living with HIV-AIDS.

Lee, R. S., Kochman, A., & Sikkema, K. J. (2002). AIDS and Behavior, 6(4), 309-319.

Failing to address stigma limits the potential of people living with HIV to live full and productive lives and assert the rights to which they are entitled and hinders all prevention, treatment, and care efforts. Read article here.


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