Research - Socioeconomic Status

The role of stigma in access to health care for the poor

Allen H1, Wright BJ, Harding K, Broffman L (2014.) The Milbank Quarterly;92(2):289-318.

People who are poor report a negative demeanor from their healthcare providers due to their poverty, rather than an internalized stigma, and it is resulting in unmet health needs, poorer perceptions of quality of care, and worse health across several self-reported measures. Read article here. 

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How costly is welfare stigma? Separating psychological costs from time costs in food assistance programs.

Flaherty, Colleen and Mumford, Kevin J. (2012).

The authors compared the psychological cost (stigma) to the cost of time (eligibility requirements) for welfare recipients, and found that the psychological costs were four times as much as the time costs. Read article here.


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Dignity and Dreams What the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) Means to Low-Income Families

Sykesa, J., Krizb, K., Edinc, K., and Halpern-Meekind, S. (2015). American Sociological Review, 80, 2: 243-267.

The authors interviewed 115 low-wage EITC recipients who said they valued the tax refund because they earned it, compared to shame and stigma from traditional welfare. Read abstract here.

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Take-up of Free School Meals: Price Effects and PeerEffects

Holford, Angus (2015). Economica82328: 976–993.

The author explores whether peer-group participation helps overcome stigma and its affect toward improving students’ utilization of free lunch programs in schools. Read abstract here.

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Political Polarization in the American Public: How Increasing Ideological Uniformity and Partisan Antipathy Affect Politics, Compromise and Everyday Life

Dimock, M., Kiley, J., Keeter, S., Doherty, C. Pew Research Center, June 12, 2014.

This comprehensive report is the first of a multi-part series based on a national survey of 10,013 adults nationwide, conducted January 23-March 16, 2014. The survey is aimed at understanding the nature and scope of political polarization in the American public, and how it interrelates with government, society and people’s personal lives. Read full report here.

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The Effect of Physical Height on Workplace Success and Income: Preliminary Test of a Theoretical Model

Judge, TA, Cable, DM (2004.) Journal of Applied Psychology, 89,3: 428–441.

In this article, the authors propose a theoretical model of the relationship between physical height and career success, and then the relationship between individuals’ physical height and their incomes. Read article here.

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Low income, high risk: the overlapping stigmas of food allergy and poverty

Minaker, LM; Elliott, SJ;  & Clarke, A.  Critical Public Health, 2014.

In this study the authors sought to explore experiences and coping strategies of low-income families affected by food allergies, including the intersection of allergy-related stigma with poverty stigma. Results can be used to suggest additions to a conceptual model of disease stigma. Differing perspectives between key informants and low-income individuals have implications for strategies to improve access to education, safe food, and medication for low-income families affected by food allergies. Read abstract here. 

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Race, socioeconomic status, and health: The added effects of racism and discrimination

Williams, DR (1999.)  Annals New York Academy of Sciences; 896, 173-188.

Racism can negatively impact health for racial minorities due to: racial bias in medical care, stress of discrimination, self-stigma. Lower socio-economic status is an additional burden. Read article here. 

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Association of perceived stigma and mood and anxiety disorders: results from the World Mental Health Surveys

Alonso J, Buron A, Bruffaerts R, et al. (2008.) Acta Psychiatrica Scandanavica; 118(4): 305–314.

This grand-scale, international study surveyed 80,737 adults residing in 16 countries and found that perceived stigma is frequent and strongly associated with mental disorders worldwide – more so than with other chronic physical conditions. The stigma is greater among people living in developing countries, compared to those in developed countries. Efforts to alleviate stigma among individuals with co-morbid depression and anxiety are needed. Read article here.

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A Model of (Often Mixed) Stereotype Content: Competence and Warmth Respectively Follow from Status and Competition

Fiske, S.T., A.J.C. Cuddy, P. Glick, and J. Xu. (2002.) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82(6): 878–902.

Stereotype Content Model hypothesizes that competence and warmth determine stereotyping, depending on the balance (high or low) of each. The researchers explored  gender, ethnicity, race, class, age, and disability as they pertained to various combinations of competence and warmth. Read article here. 

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Women in Transition: A Qualitative Analysis of Definitions of Poverty and Success.

Marsh-McDonald, C. M., & Schroeder, S. (2012). The Qualitative Report, 17(91), 1-22.

Impoverished women share insights related to the stigma of poverty and their diverse experiences in transitioning away from poverty. Read article here.

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