Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Top-Line Estimates for Active-Duty Service Members from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study
National Defense Research Institute, Andrew R. Morral, Kristie L. Gore, Terry L. Schell, Lisa H. Jaycox, Bonnie Ghosh-Dastidar, Coreen Farris, Robin Beckman, Barbara Bicksler, Q Burkhart, Jennifer Hawes-Dawson, Marc N. Elliott, Caroline Batka, Jeffrey Hiday, Dean Kilpatrick, Stephan Kistler, Craig Martin, Amy Grace Peele, Amy Street, Terri Tanielian, Mark E. Totten and Kayla M. Williams. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2014.
This Rand study explored sexual assault, sexual harassment and gender discrimination among US military personnel. They explored how stigma impacted reporting rates and individuals’ willingness and ability to access support.
– Estimated 26 Percent of Active-Duty Women and 7 Percent of Active-Duty Men Experienced Sexual Harassment or Gender Discrimination in the Past Year
– 4.9 percent of active-duty women and 1 percent of active-duty men experienced one or more sexual assaults in the previous year
Krebs, CP; Lindquist, CH; Warner, TD; Fisher, BS; Martin, SL (2007.) U.S. Department of Justice. NIJ Grant No. 2004-WG-BX-0010. Performance Period: January 2005 through December 2007.
The researchers used a variety of descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate techniques to analyze the CSA data, and were able to 1) generate prevalence estimates of different types of sexual assault, 2) identify factors associated with being a victim of different types of sexual assault, and 3) describe the contexts, consequences, and reporting of different types of sexual assault. Read report here.
The impact of child sexual abuse and stigma on methods of coping with sexual assault among undergraduate women
Gibson LE, Leitenberg H., (2001.) Child Abuse Neglect; 25(10):1343-61.
This study concludes that sexually revictimized young women may be particularly at-risk of relying on disengagement methods of coping with sexual assault. Furthermore, this association is mediated by feelings of shame or stigma. Read abstract here.
Mediators of the long-term impact of child sexual abuse: Perceived stigma, betrayal, powerlessness, and self-blame
Coffey, P., Leitenberg, H., Henning, K., Turner, T., and Bennett, RT., (1996.) Child Abuse & Neglect, 20, 5: 447–455.
Using a community sample of 192 adult women who had been sexually abused during childhood, the researchers tested the hypothesis that perceived stigma, betrayal, powerlessness, and self-blame mediate the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. A path analysis indicated that the level of psychological distress currently experienced by adult women who had been sexually abused in childhood was mediated by feelings of stigma and self-blame. Read abstract here.
Stigma-Threat Motivated Nondisclosure of Sexual Assault and Sexual Revictimization: A Prospective Analysis
Miller, AK, Canales, EJ, Amacker, AM, Backstrom, TL, Gidycz, CA (2011). Psychology of Women Quarterly,35,1: 119-128
The researchers asked sexual assault survivors for their reasons why they did not disclose being assaulted. Respondents who indicated stigma was the reason had a prospectively predicted sexual revictimization during a 4.2-month follow-up period. Read abstract here.