Research - Facial Differences

Psychological issues in cleft lip and cleft palate

Sousa, A. D., Devare, S., & Ghanshani, J. (2009). Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons, 14(2), 55–58.

People with cleft lip and cleft palate are affected by vocational and social issues, as well as lowered self esteem and difficulties socializing. The researchers suggest that psychological issues with this population are under-reported, and they recommend a psychologist be on the surgical team to help identify them. Read article here.


Cancer and facial disfigurement: reducing survivors’ stigma in social interaction

Bonanno A, and Esmaeli B, (2012). Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing;16(2):153-9.
Survivors of cancer with tumors around the eye area (peri/orbital cancer) often have facial differences after the tumor/s are removed. The authors conducted a qualitative study to assess the social interaction leading to stigma in this population, as well as the experiences of their family members. Interactions with strangers were observed and named (intrusion, sympathy, and benign neglect) and how they do/don’t foster stigma. The authors also identified ways to manage stigma. Read abstract here.

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Do people avoid sitting next to someone who is facially disfigured?

Vicky Houston and Ray Bull (1994). European Journal of Social Psychology; 24, 2: 279–284.

The authors observed travelers on a suburban railway significantly avoiding sitting next to fellow travelers who had a facial port-wine stain. The researchers concluded that reported perceptions of people with facial differences that they are stigmatized is real.  Read abstract here.

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Stigma experiences in youth with facial differences: a multi-site study of adolescents and their mothers

Strauss RP, Ramsey BL, Edwards TC, Topolski TD, Kapp-Simon KA, Thomas CR, Fenson C, and Patrick DL. (May 2007). Journal of Orthodontic Craniofacial Research;10(2):96-103.

Youth with facial differences reported experiencing stigma frequently, and independent parental report corroborated this. The authors suggest media and public health interventions to reduce discrimination, prejudice and negative adolescent social experiences related to facial difference. Read abstract here.


Burden of Disease: The Psychosocial Impact of Rosacea on a Patient’s Quality of Life

Huynh, TT (2013.) American Health & Drug Benefits: 6(6)348-354.

Note: The author is a contract medical writer for Galderma Laboratories, LP,
Fort Worth, TX.
The facial skin manifestations of rosacea have significant implications on patients’ well-being and social and emotional health. The author explores the self-perception of disease manifestations and how the disease manifests, along with medical treatment. Read article here. 

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