Stigma experiences in youth with facial differences: a multi-site study of adolescents and their mothers
Strauss RP, Ramsey BL, Edwards TC, Topolski TD, Kapp-Simon KA, Thomas CR, Fenson C, and Patrick DL. (May 2007). Journal of Orthodontic Craniofacial Research;10(2):96-103.
Youth with facial differences reported experiencing stigma frequently, and independent parental report corroborated this. The authors suggest media and public health interventions to reduce discrimination, prejudice and negative adolescent social experiences related to facial difference. Read abstract here.