Research - Mental Illness

The Dyslexia Experience: Difference, Disclosure, Labelling, Discrimination and Stigma

Alexander-Passe, Neil ( 2015). Asia Pacic Journal of Developmental Dierences2, 2: 202 233. DOI: 10.3850/S2345734115000290.

This article explores a research study of 22 adults with dyslexia, and found that most perceived stigma and discrimination and experienced depression as a result. These findings were not correlated with whether the participants felt their dyslexia was a positive or not. Read article here.

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Do we overdramatize family physician burnout? YES

Kay, Margaret (2012). Canadian Family Physician58(7).

The author bases an argument on the premise that family physicians do experience burnout. What she asserts is that it is overdramatized with associations of depression and suicide, and that this further stigmatizes these conditions, as well as (by association), stigmatizes burnout. She points out that research has shown that burnout is more associated with situational or organizational factors, rather than individual ones. Read article here.

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Psychiatric Illness and Family Stigma

Phelan, Jo C.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; and Link, Bruce G. (1998). Schizophrenia Bulletin 24 (1): 115-126.

Half of the family members studied reported concealing their relative’s hospitalization for mental illness to some degree, based on perceived stigma.  Read abstract here.

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Stigma as a barrier to recovery: The extent to which caregivers believe most people devalue consumers and their families

Struening, E. L., Perlick, D. A., Link, B. G., et al (2001) . Psychiatric Services, 52, 1633– 1638.

Caring for someone with a serious mental illness can be distressing, and may be harmful to health and injurious to one’s quality of life. When those caregivers don’t feel support, or do feel judgment from their community, the negative effects are compounded. The authors suggest that developing interventions to yield more supportive and understanding communities would be worthwhile. Read abstract here.

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Perceived stigma and depression among caregivers of patients with bipolar disorder

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Labeling and Stigma

Link, BG and Phelan, JC (2013). C.S. Aneshensel et al. (eds.), Second Edition, 525 Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research, Chapter 25, pp 525-541.

The authors describe an historical context of stigma related to mental illness, including their own Modified Labeling Theory from the 1980s. They describe both the benefits and negative consequences of labeling mental illness and discuss direction for moving forward.  Read chapter here.

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Attitudes towards mental disorders and emotional empathy in mental health and other healthcare professionals

Gateshill, G., Kucharska-Pietura, K., and Wattis, J. (2011). The Psychiatrist (2011), 35, 101-105.

Mental health providers and non-mental health specialized healthcare providers’ attitudes toward people with mental illness were compared. Both groups had generally positive attitudes, although non-mental health providers thought that people with mental illness were more unpredictable and dangerous than mental health providers. Read article here.

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Attitudes of medical professionals towards patients with eating disorders

Fleming, J., Szmukler, G. (1992.) Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry; 26,3:436-443

352 hospital healthcare providers completed a questionnaire. Patients with eating disorders were seen as responsible for their illness and less liked than patients with schizophrenia. Read abstract here.

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The stigma of eating disorders

Gowers SG, Shore A. (1999). International Journal Clinical Practice; 53(5):386-8.

This review explores how the public and healthcare providers stigmatize people with eating disorders, and how this impedes treatment. The authors also explore strategies to reduce stigma to support this population.  Read abstract here.

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The experience of caregiving for severe mental illness: a comparison between anorexia nervosa and psychosis

Treasure, J., Murphy, T., Szmukler, T., Todd, G., Gavan, K., Joyce, J. (2001). Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 36, 7: 343-347.

Guilt and shame contributed to the burden on caregivers to people with anorexia nervosa and severe nervosa, with a higher burden on caregivers to people with the eating disorder. Read abstract here.

 

 

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Males with eating disorders: Challenges for treatment and research

Andersen, Arnold E; Holman, John E. (1997). Psychopharmacology Bulletin33.3: 391-7.

Males represent only 10% of people who have eating disorders. Ameliorating stigma needs to be one of the factors addressed when treating them. Read abstract here. 

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A comparison of stigma toward eating disorders versus depression

Roehrig, JP, and McLean, CP. (2010). International Journal of Eating Disorders, 43, 7: 671–674. 

The researchers had participants compare three vignettes about anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and depression. They found that the stigma was greater to people with eating disorders compared to depression. Read abstract here.

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How often and how consistently do symptoms directly precede criminal behavior among offenders with mental illness?

Peterson, JK., Kennealy, P., Skeem, J., Bray, B., Zvonkovic, A. (2014). Law and Human Behavior; 38:5, 439-449.

The researchers conducted intensive interviews with 143 criminal offenders with mental illness to examine the causes that led to their criminal behavior. They found that the mental illness rarely motivated the criminal acts. They suggest that programming to reduce recidivism should focus on risk factors like anti-social behavior, rather than just the psychiatric symptoms. Read article here.

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Violence and mental illness: an overview

Stuart, Heather (2003). World Psychiatry; 2(2): 121–124.

The researcher asked three questions about people who have a mental illness and violence: Are the mentally ill violent? Are they more likely to be victims of violence? Is the public at risk? The research findings demonstrate that having a mental illness is not a determinant of violence, but that the public exaggerate both propensity for violence and their risk. The research also shows that people who have a mental illness are more likely to be victims of violence.

The author also identifies risk factors related to substance abuse and violence, and advocates for early identification and treatment of substance abuse. Read article here.

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Stigma: the feelings and experiences of 46 people with mental illness

Dinos, S., Stevens, S., Serfaty, M., Weich, S., King, M. (2004). 

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Mental illness stigma: Concepts, consequences, and initiatives to reduce stigma

Rusch, N., Angermeyer, MC., and Corrigan, PW. (2005). European Psychiatry, 20, 8: 529–539.
The authors explore mental illness stigma and its consequences. They then delve deeper, focusing on self-stigma/empowerment and fear of stigma as a barrier to accessing healthcare. They also examine protest, education and contact as characteristics of stigma-reduction campaigns. Read abstract here. 

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The economic impact of mental health stigma and discrimination: a systematic review.

Sharac J, McCrone P, Clement S, Thornicroft G. (2010.) Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc.;19(3):223-32.
The authors examined 30 articles about 27 different studies that explored the financial cost of stigma related to mental health care. They concluded that reducing stigma will have an economic benefit as well as a social one. Read abstract here.

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Self-concept, stigma and quality of life in chronic schizophrenia and chronic skin disorders: A comparative study

Rai, A., Khess, CR., Bhatacharjee, D., Gupta, AK., Koushal, V. (2014.) Delhi Psychiatry Journal;19(1)65-73.

People with schizophrenia experience greater levels of stigma, lower levels of self concept, and lower quality of life compared to people with chronic skin conditions. Read article here. 

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Two studies of comparative stigma: employer attitudes and practices toward rehabilitated convicts, mental and tuberculosis patients

Brand RC Jr, Clairborn WL, (1976.) Journal of Community Mental Health;12(2):168-75.

The authors compared employers considered hiring people from three groups: people with a mental illness history, a criminal record, and tuberculosis. Read abstract here. 

 

 

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Active Ingredients in Anti-stigma Programmes in Mental Health

Pinfold, V., Thornicroft, G., Huxley, P., Farmer, P. (2005.) International Review of Psychiatry;17(2):123-31.

The authors reviewed literature and a mental health program in England. They concluded that stories about personal experiences from people with mental illness had the greatest impact on reducing stigma. Read abstract here.

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Strategies for reducing stigma toward persons with mental illness

Penn, DL, and Couture, SM (2002.) World Psychiatry; 1(1): 20–21.
The authors’ commentary about Corrigan and Watson’s article about the impact of stigma on people with serious mental illness addresses one aspect :  reducing stigma. They suggest that efforts to suppress negative stereotypes about people with mental illness actually increases stigmatizing behavior, rather than decreases it. They also suggest that increased education and contact with people who have mental illnesses reduces stigmatizing behavior. Read commentary here.

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Interpersonal contact and the stigma of mental illness: A review of the literature

Couture, SM and Penn, DL (2003.) Journal of Mental Health (June 2003) 12, 3, 291 – 305

The authors reviewed existing literature that suggests interpersonal contact as a method of addressing the stigma of mental illness and provides considerations and suggestions for future research. Read article here. 

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Challenging two mental illness stigmas: Personal responsibility and dangerousness

Corrigan, P.W., Rowan, D., Green, A., et al. (2002). Schizophrenia Bulletin, 28, 293-309.

The authors explored how perceptions of dangerousness and personal responsibility related to people with mental illness  may undermine the opportunities of persons with serious mental illness. Fear of dangerousness was a key attitude leading to discriminatory behavior, and contact with people who have mental illnesses positively influenced behavior. Read article here.

 

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Epilepsy familiarity, knowledge, and perceptions of stigma: report from a survey of adolescents in the general population

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Not all my fault: Genetics, stigma, and personal responsibility for women with eating disorders

Easter, MM (2012.) Soc Sci Med ; 75(8): 1408–1416

This study explored how genetic framing of eating disorders and mental illness affected women’s perception of stigma and responsibility on their diagnoses. Read unedited article here.

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Food that makes you different: the stigma experienced by adolescents with celiac disease

Olsson C, Lyon P, Hörnell A, Ivarsson A, Sydner YM. (2009.) Qualitative Health Research;19(7):976-84.

Researchers explored adolescents’ compliance with the gluten-free diet (GFD)  as it related to stigma. The GFD often required discussions and special requests, so eating in public had the effect of making an invisible condition visible, and thereby creating a context for felt or enacted stigma. The results of the study show that the GFD can produce stigma experiences in adolescence, and that dietary compliance (or lack thereof) can be understood in terms of dealing with GFD concealment and disclosure. Read abstract here.

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The Campus Sexual Assault (CSA) Study

Krebs, CP; Lindquist, CH; Warner, TD; Fisher, BS; Martin, SL (2007.) U.S. Department of Justice. NIJ Grant No. 2004-WG-BX-0010. Performance Period: January 2005 through December 2007.

The researchers used a variety of descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate techniques to analyze the CSA data, and were able to 1) generate prevalence estimates of different types of sexual assault, 2) identify factors associated with being a victim of different types of sexual assault, and 3) describe the contexts, consequences, and reporting of different types of sexual assault.  Read report here.

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Public stigma in health and non-healthcare students: Attributions, emotions and willingness to help with adolescent self-harm

G. Urquhart Law, G; Rostill-Brookes, H; and Goodman, D (2009.) International Journal of Nursing Studies 46, 108–119.

The treatment outcomes of young people who self harm may be adversely affected by the care and treatment of providers, including anger and blame harbored toward those who self-harm. Training of staff at treatment facilities and educational programs for providers should incorporate programming and interventions on theoretical models of stigma and discrimination. Read article here.

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Concealable Stigmatized Identities and Psychological Well-Being

Quinn, DM, and Earnshaw, VA (2013.) Social and Personality Psychology Compass; 7(1): 40–51.

The authors discuss how identities that are socially devalued or negatively stereotyped affect psychological well-being, They explore existing research and areas to explore in the future.  Read article here.

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Understanding Concealable Stigmatized Identities: The Role of Identity in Psychological, Physical, and Behavioral Outcomes

Quinn, DM, and Earnshaw, VA (2011.) Social Issues and Policy Review, 5, 1:160–190

The authors argue that stigma, discrimination, disclosure reactions and positive information, coupled with the importance of the identity determine how people with concealable stigmatized identities (e.g. mental illness, chronic disease) influence their psychological, physical, and behavioral health outcomes. Suggestions for policy implications are included.  Read article here.

 

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Influence of patient race and ethnicity on clinical assessment in patients with affective disorders

Michael A. Gara; William A. Vega; Stephan Arndt; Michael Escamilla; David E. Fleck; William B. Lawson, MD; Ira Lesser; Harold W. Neighbors; Daniel R. Wilson; Lesley M. Arnold; Stephen M. Strakowski, (2012.) Arch Gen Psychiatry, 69(6):593-600.

The authors found that African American subjects were diagnosed more frequently with disorders in the schizophrenia spectrum than did non-Latino white subjects, even after controlling for the presence or absence of serious affective disorder and other clinical and demographic confounds. The authors conclude that clinicians may overvalue psychotic symptoms in African American patients, and skew diagnoses toward schizophrenia-spectrum conditions, even with similar levels of affective symptoms as White subjects. Their exploratory analysis suggests that this effect was specific to African American subjects and did not extend to Latino subjects.

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Embarrassment when illness strikes a close relative: A World Mental Health Survey Consortium multi-site study

Ahmedani, BK, Kubiak, SP, Kessler, RC et al. (2013.) Psychological Medicine; 43:10, 2191-2202.

Family members of people with alcohol, drug, or mental health conditions experience higher levels of embarrassment compared to family members of people with general medical conditions. This research suggests that interventions addressing stigma experienced by family members with alcohol, drug or mental health conditions may be needed to overcome obstacles for early intervention and treatment. Read abstract here. 

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Association of perceived stigma and mood and anxiety disorders: results from the World Mental Health Surveys

Alonso J, Buron A, Bruffaerts R, et al. (2008.) Acta Psychiatrica Scandanavica; 118(4): 305–314.

This grand-scale, international study surveyed 80,737 adults residing in 16 countries and found that perceived stigma is frequent and strongly associated with mental disorders worldwide – more so than with other chronic physical conditions. The stigma is greater among people living in developing countries, compared to those in developed countries. Efforts to alleviate stigma among individuals with co-morbid depression and anxiety are needed. Read article here.

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Perceived stigma among individuals with common mental disorders.

Buron A, Rojas-Farreras S, de Graaf R, et al. (2009.) Journal of Affective Disorders, 118(1-3):180-6

Individuals with mental disorders are more likely to report stigma if they have lower education, are married, or are unemployed. Perceived stigma is associated with considerably decrease in quality of life and role functioning. Read abstract here. 

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The psychiatric rehabilitation of African Americans with severe mental illness

Whitley, R., and Lawson, WB (2010.) Psychiatric Services, May;61(5):508-11

The authors report that successful rehabilitation of African Americans with severe mental illnesses requires three levels of intervention: macro, provider, and patient. Further, the areas of cross-cultural communication, discrimination, explanatory models, stigma, and family involvement must also be examined. Read article here. 

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A content analysis of weight stigmatization in popular television programming for adolescents

Marla E. Eisenberg, ME., Carlson-McGuire, A., Gollust, SE., Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2014.) International Journal of Eating Disorders, doi: 10.1002/eat.22348.
The portrayal of weight stigmatization on popular television shows—including targeting women of average weight—sends signals to adolescents about the wide acceptability of this behavior and the expected response, which may be harmful. Prevention of weight stigmatization should take a multi-faceted approach and include the media. Future research should explore the impact that weight-related stigma in television content has on viewers. Read abstract here.

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DSM-V and the stigma of mental illness

Ben-Zeev, D, Young, MA, Corrigan, PW (2010.) Journal of Mental Health; 19(4):318-27.
In this article the authors explore three types of negative outcomes of diagnostic labels and stigma in relation to the (at the time upcoming) DSM-V : public stigma, self-stigma and label avoidance. The DSM-V work groups are presented, and their possible future implications for stigma associated with mental illness are discussed.  Read abstract here. 

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How clinical diagnosis might exacerbate the stigma of mental illness.

Corrigan, P.W. (2007.) Social Work. 52(1):31-9.

Diagnosis and the labeling of people with mental illness leads to both mental health providers and the public grouping people together, stereotyping and stigmatizing them. Read abstract here.

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Internet comments on media reporting of two adolescents’ collective suicide attempt.

Sisask, M., Varnik, A, and Wasserman, D. (2006.) Archives of Suicide Research, 9(1):87-98.

This article explored the spontaneous on-line comments provided by readers of seven different Internet articles of the same double-suicide attempt. The authors write that the general population’s attitude about suicide is influenced by its reporting. Read abstract here.

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How stigma interferes with mental health care.

Corrigan, P. (2004.) American Psychologist; 59(7):614-625.

This article delves deeply into the stigma impacting people who have a mental illness, and those who might have one, but fear the label and subsequent harm that might befall them if they pursue treatment. Read article here. 

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The effects of news stories on the stigma of mental illness.

Corrigan PW, Powell K, Michaels PJ. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(3):179-82. 2013.

Researchers evaluated how a positive, neutral or negative journalism article about mental illness impacted readers’ perceptions of stigma.  Read abstract here.

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Stigmatizing attitudes towards individuals with anorexia nervosa: an investigation of attribution theory.

Zwickert, K., & Rieger, E. (2013). Journal of Eating Disorders, 1(1), 5.

This study contributes to the small body of research examining stigmatizing attitudes held towards individuals with Anorexia Nervosa. Evidence suggests that these attitudes may be even stronger than those held towards obese individuals. Read article here.

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The Carter Center Mental Health Program: Addressing the public health crisis in the field of mental health through policy change and stigma reduction.

Palpant, R. G., Steimnitz, R., Bornemann, T. H., & Hawkins, K. (2006). Preventing chronic disease, 3(2).

This article focuses on increasing public knowledge, and decreasing the stigma, associated with mental illnesses through four strategic goals: reducing stigma and discrimination against people with mental illnesses; achieving equity of mental health care comparable with other health services; advancing early promotion, prevention, and early intervention services for children and their families; and increasing public awareness about mental illnesses and mental health issues. Read article here.

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Challenging mental health-related stigma through social contact.

London, J., & Evans-Lacko, S. E. (2010). The European Journal of Public Health, 20(2), 130-131.

Authors propose that the development of novel and innovative ways of incorporating social contact in the field of public mental health will make a significant impact towards decreasing stigma and discrimination against those with mental illness. Read article here.

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Concerns and needs of university students with psychiatric disabilities.

Weiner, E., & Wiener, J. (1996). Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 12(1), 2-9.

Five areas of concern were identified amongst university students with psychiatric disabilities: problems with focusing attention and organization, low self-esteem, problems with trust, stigma, and high levels of stress. Read article here.

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Postsecondary Students and Disability Stigma: Development of the Postsecondary Student Survey of Disability-Related Stigma (PSSDS).

Trammell, J. (2009). Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 22(2), 106-116.

Students receiving disability accommodations are subjected to negative stereotypes, inaccurate assessments of their ability to complete college level work, inappropriate judgments by peers, lack of accommodations outside of the classroom and increased self-doubt and academic anxiety. Read article here.

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What are college students saying about psychiatric medication?

Kranke, D., Jackson, S. E., Floersch, J., & Anderson-Fye, E. P. (2013). Journal of Scientific Research, 5(3A), 595-602.

This article explores college students’ experience with psychiatric medication and how it impacts functioning and stigma. Read article here.

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The impact of stigma on service access and participation. A guideline developed for the behavioral health recovery management project.

Watson, A., & Corrigan, P. (2001). University of Chicago Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation.

This guide considers the phenomena of stigma, prejudice, and discrimination that leads to incomplete treatment participation, and summarizes specific strategies for dealing with the stigma of mental illness in an effort to enhance access to care. Read article here.

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Stigma experience among adolescents taking psychiatric medication.

Kranke, D., Floersch, J., Townsend, L., & Munson, M. (2010). Children and Youth Services Review, 32(4), 496-505.

Studies adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 with mental illnesses and taking medications; 90 percent of the study’s participants reported experiencing some form of stigma, leading to shame, secrecy and limited social interactions. Read article here.

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Stigmatization and self-perception of youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Bussing, R., & Mehta, A. S. (2013). Patient Intelligence 5,15-27.

Youth with ADHD face significant stigma in many forms, including public (expressed as prejudice and discrimination), personal (stigma suffered by family members or associates of individuals with ADHD), and self-stigma (stigmatized individual’s acceptance of negative views by others). Read article here.

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Discrimination in healthcare against people with mental illness.

Thornicroft, G., Rose, D., & Kassa, A. (2007.) International Review of Psychiatry; 19(2): 113–122.

This article explores the association between low rates of help-seeking behavior among people who think they may have a mental illness and negative attitudes among mental health staff. Read article here.

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Association between public views of mental illness and self-stigma among individuals with mental illness in 14 European countries.

Evans-Lacko, S. et al. (2012.) Psychological Medicine, 42(8):1741-52. Large-scale anti-stigma campaigns involving knowledge, attitudes and behavior may counter the public’s negative feedback from public stigma, and therefore reduce self-stigma among people with mental health problems. Read abstract here.

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A community needs assessment for rural mental health promotion.

Barry MMDoherty AHope ASixsmith JKelleher CC. Health Educ Res. 2000 Jun;15(3):293-304.
This paper explores the mental health perceptions and beliefs of 1000 people through a needs assessment of a rural community in Ireland. Read article here.

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Measuring mental illness stigma.

Link, B.Q.; Yang, L.H.; Jo C. Phelan, J.C.; and Collins, P.Y. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 30(3):511-541, 20.
This article is designed to assist researchers in selecting or creating measures that can address critical research questions regarding stigma. Read article here.

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Mental health consumers’ experience of stigma.

Wahl, O. F. (1999). Schizophrenia bulletin, 25(3), 467.
Results of a nationwide survey of mental health consumers concerning experiences of stigma from a variety of sources, including communities, families, churches, coworkers and caregivers. Read article here.

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Is stigma internalized? The longitudinal impact of public stigma on self-stigma.

Vogel, D. L., Bitman, R. L., Hammer, J. H., & Wade, N. G. (2013). Journal of counseling psychology, 60(2), 311.
Stigma is considered an important barrier to seeking mental health services. Two types of stigma exist: public stigma and self-stigma. the goal of this research was to examine the relationship between public stigma and self-stigma over time. These findings suggest that if self-stigma develops from public stigma, interventions could be developed to interrupt this process at the individual level and reduce or eliminate self-stigma despite perceptions of public stigma. Read article here.

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Stigma and violence: isn’t it time to connect the dots?

Torrey, E. F. (2011). Schizophrenia bulletin, 37(5), 892-896.
Stigma against mentally ill persons is a major problem and has increased in incidence. Multiple studies have suggested that the perception of violent behavior by seriously mentally ill individuals is an important cause of stigma. It is also known that treating seriously mentally ill people decreases violent behavior. Therefore, authors propose that the most effective way to decrease stigma is to make sure that patients receive adequate treatment. Read article here.

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Stigma shrinks my bubble: A qualitative study of understandings and experiences of stigma and bipolar disorder.

Suto, M. (2012). Stigma Research and Action, 2(2).
This qualitative study contributes to the stigma and bipolar disorder literature focused on understanding structural, social, and self-stigma experiences from the perspectives of individuals living with bipolar disorder and their family members. Read article here.

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Fighting stigma and discrimination is fighting for mental health.

Stuart, H. (2005). Canadian Public Policy, 31(s1), 21-28.
This paper reviews the origins of stigma and discrimination and the main consequences for people with mental illness and those around them. Read article here.

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Perceived stigma as a predictor of treatment discontinuation in young and older outpatients with depression.

Sirey, J. A., Bruce, M. L., Alexopoulos, G. S., Perlick, D. A., Raue, P., Friedman, S. J. & Meyers, B. S. (2001). American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(3), 479-481.
An examination of the extent to which perceived stigma affected treatment discontinuation in young and older adults with major depression. Read article here.

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Self-stigma, group identification, perceived legitimacy of discrimination and mental health service use.

Rüsch, N., Corrigan, P. W., Wassel, A., Michaels, P., Larson, J. E., Olschewski, M. & Batia, K. (2009). The British Journal of Psychiatry, 195(6), 551-552.
Evidence demonstrates that self-stigma and stigma-related cognitions predict service use among people with serious and chronic mental illness, independent of baseline psychopathology, diagnosis and the level of perceived stigma. Read article here.

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Stigma as a barrier to recovery: adverse effects of perceived stigma on social adaptation of persons diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder.

Perlick, D. A., Rosenheck, R. A., Clarkin, J. F., Sirey, J. A., Salahi, J., Struening, E. L. & Link, B. G. (2001). Psychiatric Services, 52(12), 1627-1632.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of concerns about stigma on social adaptation among persons with a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder. Read article here.

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In Our Own Voice-Family Companion: Reducing self-stigma of family members of persons with serious mental illness.

Perlick, D. A., Nelson, A. H., Mattias, K., Selzer, J., Kalvin, C., Wilber, C. H. & Corrigan, P. W. (2011). Psychiatric Services, 62(12), 1456-1462.
This article reports preliminary findings from a novel, family peer-based intervention designed to reduce self-stigma among family members of people with serious mental illness. Read article here.

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How does stigma affect people with mental illness?

Parle, S. (2012). Nursing times, 108(28), 12.
People with mental health problems experience many different types of stigma. This article explores the attitudes and beliefs of the general public towards people with mental illness, and the lived experiences and feelings of service users and their relatives. Read article here.

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Examining differences in the stigma of depression and schizophrenia.

Norman, R. M., Windell, D., & Manchanda, R. (2012). International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 58(1), 69-78.
Schizophrenia is stigmatized far more than depression, but there has been little investigation into the reasons why. Social appropriateness, danger and prognosis, which have implications for likely costs and benefits of interaction, seem to influence social response to the disorders more than beliefs concerning causation or continuity with normal experience. Read article here.

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Stigma and discrimination.

Miller, L., & Jones, P. (2005). Doctors as Patients, 61.
Stigma remains one of the most significant and persistent barriers challenges faced by individuals with psychiatric disorders. Despite research and advocacy efforts to reduce stigma, stereotypes persist, leading to prejudice and discrimination. Read article here.

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Constructs and concepts comprising the stigma of mental illness.

Michaels, P. J., López, M., Rüsch, N., & Corrigan, P. W. (2012). Psychology, Society & Education, 4(2), 183-194.
Examines how anti-stigma initiatives with more tailored content for specific groups (e.g., police officers vs. general public) may diminish negative consequences of mental illness stigma by providing more concrete ways to help stigmatized people. Read article here.

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Stigma and discrimination in people suffering with a mood disorder: a cross-sectional study.

Lazowski, L., Koller, M., Stuart, H., & Milev, R. (2012). Depression Research and Treatment, vol.2012, Article ID 724848, 9 pages.
This study characterizes the extent to which individuals with bipolar disorder and depression are stigmatized, determines factors related to higher levels of stigmatization, and assesses the reliability of the Inventory of Stigmatizing Experiences amongst people with a mood disorder. Read article here.

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Racial/Ethnic Disparity Trends in Children’s Mental Health Care Access and Expenditures from 2002 to 2007

Le Cook, B; Barry, C.L.; Busch, S.H. (2013.) Health Services Research, 48(1):129-149.
This article explores the trends in disparities in children’s mental health care, and the underlying care-seeking behaviors that lead to treatment – or lack of it. It suggests the stigma in minority communities may impact access to care. Read manuscript here.

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How does the brain regulate negative bias to stigma?

Krendl, A. C., Kensinger, E. A., & Ambady, N. (2012). Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 7(6), 715-726.
This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine whether regulating negative bias to stigmatized individuals has a unique neural activity profile from general emotion regulation.  Findings suggest that regulating negative affect toward stigmatized targets may occur relatively more quickly than regulating negative affect toward non-stigmatized targets. Read article here.

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The Stigma Scale: development of a standardised measure of the stigma of mental illness

King, M., Dinos, S., Shaw, J., Watson, R., Stevens, S., Passetti, F. & Serfaty, M. (2007). The British Journal of Psychiatry, 190(3), 248-254.

There is concern about the stigma of mental illness, but it is difficult to measure stigma consistently.  This study aims to develop a standardized instrument to measure the stigma of mental illness. Read article here.

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At Issue: Will the Term Brain Disease Reduce Stigma and Promote Parity for Mental Illnesses?

Jorm, A. F., & Griffiths, K. M. (2008). Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 118(4), 315-321.

The author questions both the scientific evidence and potential effect of the current trend to change the language used to describe certain serious mental illnesses to “brain diseases.” It is argued that changing nomenclature will not reduce stigma unless treatment options for the seriously mentally ill are improved. Read article here.

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The stigma of mental health problems and other barriers to care in the UK Armed Forces

Iversen, A. C., van Staden, L., Hughes, J. H., Greenberg, N., Hotopf, M., Rona, R. J. & Fear, N. T. (2011). BMC health services research, 11(1), 31.

Despite recent efforts to de-stigmatize mental disorders in the military, anticipated stigma and practical barriers to consulting stand in the way of access to care for some Service personnel. Read article here.

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Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions.

Graham, T., Elaine, B., Aliya, K., & Elanor, L. H. International Journal of Mental Health Systems.

Stigma in relation to mental illness can be understood as a combination of ignorance, prejudice and discrimination. Candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatization and discrimination at the individual, community, state and national level.  Read article here.

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Do stigma and other perceived barriers to mental health care differ across Armed Forces?

Gould, M., Adler, A., Zamorski, M., Castro, C., Hanily, N., Steele, N. & Greenberg, N. (2010). Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 103(4), 148-156.
Barriers to care continue to be a major issue for service personnel within Western military forces. Although there are policy, procedural and cultural differences between Armed Forces, the nations studied appear to share some similarities in terms of perceived stigma and barriers to psychological care. Further research to understand reporting patterns and subgroup differences is proposed. Read article here.

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Understanding the impact of stigma on people with mental illness.

Corrigan, P. W., & Watson, A. C. (2002). World Psychiatry, 1(1), 16-20.
The authors examine how people with serious mental illness struggle with both the symptoms of the disease and the stereotypes and prejudice that result from misconceptions about it. Corrigan and Watson explore ways of addressing this stigma, through protest, education and contact with those affected. Read article here.

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Facility based cross-sectional study of self stigma among people with mental illness: towards patient empowerment approach.

Girma, E., Tesfaye, M., Froeschl, G., Möller-Leimkühler, A. M., Dehning, S., & Müller, N. (2013). International journal of mental health systems, 7(1), 21.

Self stigma among people with mental illness results from multiple cognitive and environmental factors and processes. It can negatively affect adherence to psychiatric services, self esteem, hope, social integration and quality of life of people with mental illness. Read article here.

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Challenging the public stigma of mental illness: A meta-analysis of outcome studies.

Corrigan, P. W., Morris, S. B., Michaels, P. J., Rafacz, J. D., & Rüsch, N. (2012). Psychiatric Services, 63(10), 963-973.
This article reports on a meta-analysis that examined the effects of anti-stigma approaches that included protest or social activism, education of the public, and contact with persons with mental illness. Read article here.

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Self‐stigma and the “why try” effect: Impact on life goals and evidence‐based practices.

Corrigan, P. W., Larson, J. E., & Ruesch, N. (2009). World Psychiatry, 8(2), 75-81.  Many individuals with mental illnesses are troubled by self-stigma and the subsequent processes that accompany this stigma: low self-esteem and self-efficacy. “Why try” is the overarching phenomenon of interest here, encompassing self-stigma, mediating processes, and their effect on goal-related behavior. Read article here.

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