I Don’t Think this is Theoretical; This is our Lives
Bauer et al. (2009). JANAC;20(5)348-361. doi:10.1016/j.jana.2009.07.004.
The authors report on phase 1 of Trans Pulse, a Canadian-based transgender community research project investigating the problems transgender people have accessing healthcare. Recommended interventions proposed too. Read article here.
How Does Sexual Minority Stigma “Get Under the Skin”? A Psychological Mediation Framework
Mark L. Hatzenbuehler (2009). Psychology Bulletin; 135(5): 707–730. doi: 10.1037/a0016441
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer people are at increased risk for mental health problems. Two areas that are attributed to causing these problems are (a) sexual minorities confront increased stress exposure resulting from stigma; (b) this stigma-related stress creates elevations in general emotion dysregulation, social/interpersonal problems, and cognitive processes conferring risk for psychopathology; and (c) these processes in turn mediate the relationship between stigma-related stress and psychopathology. It is argued that this framework can, theoretically, illuminate how stigma adversely affects mental health and, practically, inform clinical interventions. Evidence for the predictive validity of this framework is reviewed, with particular attention paid to illustrative examples from research on depression, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders. Read article here.
The researchers conclude that being transgender is not a mental illness and does not cause a mental illness. Rather, the stigma and marginalization that people who are trans experience causes mental illnesses. This article recommends that the next International Classification of Diseases (ICD) – 11 not list being transgender as a disorder. Read abstract here.
Perceived discrimination and depression among low-income Latina male-to-female transgender women
Mohsen Bazargan, M. and Galvan, F. (2012).BMC Public Health12:663. DOI:1186/1471-2458-12-663.
Researchers asked 220 male to female Latina transgender people living in California to complete a questionnaire. Findings showed increased depression that correlated with perceived depression. Read article here.
Reduction of Stigma in Schools: An evaluation of the first three years
Payne, E and Smith, M. (2010). Issues in Teacher Education 19, 2: 11-36.
This article explores how educators’ response or lack of response to LGBTQ students affects their risk factors. It further evaluates the Reduction of Stigma in Schools (RSIS) professional development program implemented in upstate NY. RSIS focuses on three objectives: (a) to establish an understanding of the operation of stigma in schools and the relationship between stigma and risk for LGBTQ youth; (b) to provide education and tools for creating more positive learning environments for all students; and (c) to actively create opportunities for dialogue and change in support of LGBTQ students. The authors conclude with reflections on the barriers to creating sustainable change and provide recommendations for interventions that aim to address the systemic marginalization of sexual and gender-non-conforming youth. Read article here.
Demographic and Psychosocial Factors Associated With Psychological Distress and Resilience Among Transgender Individuals
Bariola, E., Lyons, A., Leonard, W., Pitts, M., Badcock, P., and Couch, M.(2015). American Journal of Public Health: 105(10): 2108-2116. (doi:10.2105/AJPH.2015.302763)
A 2011 Australian study surveyed 169 transgender people and found 46% experienced high or very high levels of psychological stress. Younger age, poor family support, and victimization experiences were associated with greater psychological distress, and higher income, identifying as heterosexual, and having LGBT peers were associated with greater resilience. Read abstract here.
Beliefs about the origins of homosexuality and support for gay rights: An empirical test of attribution theory
Haider-Markel, DP, and Joslyn, MR (2008). Public Opinion Quarterly, 72( 2): 291–310
The authors surveyed adults on whether they believed homosexuality was a learned behavior based on environment (controlled), or whether it was biologically driven (not controlled). Consistent with Attribution theory, when the participants perceived homosexuality as genetic there was greater support for policies that were inclusive and equal. Read article here.
Concealable Stigmatized Identities and Psychological Well-Being
Quinn, DM, and Earnshaw, VA (2013.) Social and Personality Psychology Compass; 7(1): 40–51.
The authors discuss how identities that are socially devalued or negatively stereotyped affect psychological well-being, They explore existing research and areas to explore in the future. Read article here.
Understanding Concealable Stigmatized Identities: The Role of Identity in Psychological, Physical, and Behavioral Outcomes
Quinn, DM, and Earnshaw, VA (2011.) Social Issues and Policy Review, 5, 1:160–190
The authors argue that stigma, discrimination, disclosure reactions and positive information, coupled with the importance of the identity determine how people with concealable stigmatized identities (e.g. mental illness, chronic disease) influence their psychological, physical, and behavioral health outcomes. Suggestions for policy implications are included. Read article here.
A Model of (Often Mixed) Stereotype Content: Competence and Warmth Respectively Follow from Status and Competition
Fiske, S.T., A.J.C. Cuddy, P. Glick, and J. Xu. (2002.)Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82(6): 878–902.
Stereotype Content Model hypothesizes that competence and warmth determine stereotyping, depending on the balance (high or low) of each. The researchers explored gender, ethnicity, race, class, age, and disability as they pertained to various combinations of competence and warmth. Read article here.
Reduction of stigma in schools: An evaluation of the first three years.
Payne, E., & Smith, M. (2010). Issues in Teacher Education, 19(2), 26.
This article asserts that educators need to gain a clear understanding of the ways in which LGBTQ youth experience their schools, they need new ways to “see” both their own interactions and the student interactions going on around them, and they need tools for change. Read article here.
Stigma, Mental Health, and Resilience in an Online Sample of the US Transgender Population
Bockting, W.O.; Miner, M.H.; Swinburne Romine, R.E.; Hamilton, A.; and Coleman, E. American Journal of Public Health, 103(5)943-951, 2013.
In this study researchers assessed the association between minority stress, mental health, and potential ameliorating factors in a large, community-based, geographically diverse sample of the US transgender population. Read abstract here.
Transgender Identity and HIV: Resilience in the Face of Stigma
Bockting, W.O. Focus: A Guide to AIDS Research and Counseling, 23(2), 2008.
This article explores key aspects of oppression to people who are transgender – including invisibility, economic hardship, stigma, and isolation – that make transgender people especially vulnerable to HIV infection and transmission. Read article here.
Adolescent Sexual Orientation and Suicide Risk: Evidence From a National Study
Russel, ST, and Joyner, K. American Journal of Public Health, 91(8):1276-1281, 2001.
This study looks at risk factors of suicide risk, including depression, hopelessness, alcohol abuse, recent suicide attempts by a peer or a family member, and experiences of victimization and adolescent sexual orientation. Read article here.
This article explains that stigma, prejudice, and discrimination toward the LGB populations create a hostile and stressful social environment that causes higher mental health problems for them compared to heterosexual populations. Read article here.