Research - Labels

The State of Learning Disabilities: Facts, Trends and Emerging Issues

Cortiella, Candace and Horowitz, Sheldon H, (2014.) New York: National Center for Learning Disabilities.

This comprehensive report by the National Center for Learning Disabilities explains what learning disabilities are, and illustrates how society perceives people with them. Read report here.

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Labeling and Stigma

Link, BG and Phelan, JC (2013). C.S. Aneshensel et al. (eds.), Second Edition, 525 Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research, Chapter 25, pp 525-541.

The authors describe an historical context of stigma related to mental illness, including their own Modified Labeling Theory from the 1980s. They describe both the benefits and negative consequences of labeling mental illness and discuss direction for moving forward.  Read chapter here.

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A rose by any other name?: The consequences of subtyping “African-Americans” from “Blacks”

Hall, EV, Phillips, KW, and Townsend, SSM (2015). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 56:183-190.

The authors conducted four studies and explored how people perceive the terms “Black” and “African American.” They argue that Whites view the term Black more negatively than the term African American. Read article here. 

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DSM-V and the stigma of mental illness

Ben-Zeev, D, Young, MA, Corrigan, PW (2010.) Journal of Mental Health; 19(4):318-27.
In this article the authors explore three types of negative outcomes of diagnostic labels and stigma in relation to the (at the time upcoming) DSM-V : public stigma, self-stigma and label avoidance. The DSM-V work groups are presented, and their possible future implications for stigma associated with mental illness are discussed.  Read abstract here. 

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How clinical diagnosis might exacerbate the stigma of mental illness.

Corrigan, P.W. (2007.) Social Work. 52(1):31-9.

Diagnosis and the labeling of people with mental illness leads to both mental health providers and the public grouping people together, stereotyping and stigmatizing them. Read abstract here.

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Diagnostic Labels, Stigma, and Participation in Research Related to Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment

Garand, L, Lingler, J.H., O’Conner, K, and Dew, M.A. (2009.) Res Gerontol Nursing; 2(2): 112–121.

While labeling dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) provide valuable therapeutic and research benefits, the stigma that is associated with the label can interfere with participation in clinical trials and accessing care. Researchers must work to overcome the barriers that surface as a result of the stigma.  Read manuscript here. 

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Stigma of a Label Educational Expectations for High School Students Labeled with Learning Disabilities

Shifer, D (2013.)  Journal of Health and Social Behavior54:4, 462-480. 

The author finds that consistent with the Labeling Theory, lower performance of students with learning disabilities is attributed stigma: parents and to a larger effect, teachers, have lower expectations of students’ capabilities. Read article here.

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At Issue: Will the Term Brain Disease Reduce Stigma and Promote Parity for Mental Illnesses?

Jorm, A. F., & Griffiths, K. M. (2008). Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 118(4), 315-321.

The author questions both the scientific evidence and potential effect of the current trend to change the language used to describe certain serious mental illnesses to “brain diseases.” It is argued that changing nomenclature will not reduce stigma unless treatment options for the seriously mentally ill are improved. Read article here.

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