Research - Gender

Can Evidence Impact Attitudes? Public Reactions to Evidence of Gender Bias in STEM Fields

Moss-Racusin, CA., Molenda, AK., and Cramer, CR. (2015). Psychology of Women Quarterly39, 2:194-209.

The authors evaluated articles that discussed research about gender bias in the STEM field. They found that men were more likely to make negative comments, and women to make positive comments. It didn’t matter whether or not the commenters worked in the STEM field.  Read abstract here.

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Science faculty’s subtle gender biases favor male students

Moss-Racusin, Corinne A. et al (2012),  Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109 (41) 1647416479. 

Science faculty from research-intensive universities evaluated identical applications from either a male or a female. The male applicant was rated higher, received a higher starting salary and was offered more mentoring. The findings were similar whether they were rated by a male or a female faculty member. Read article here.

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Does gender bias against female leaders persist? Quantitative and qualitative data from a large-scale survey

Elsesser, KM, and Lever, J (2011). Human Relations 64(12) 1555–1578.

The researchers found participants were less likely to show gender bias when evaluating their own boss, but they found many saw women as having less potential for management. The authors report that this is consistent with previous research that shows much larger gender bias in studies of hypothetical or abstract leaders, and little or no bias in studies of actual bosses, and should serve as a reminder that caution must be taken in extending laboratory results based on hypothetical bosses to actual organizational scenarios. Read article here.

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Gender Stereotypes Are Alive, Well, and Busy Producing Workplace Discrimination

Heilman, Madeline and Eagly, Alice H (2008.) Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 393–398.

The authors critique Frank Landy’s 2008 article, “Stereotypes, bias, and personnel decisions: Strange and stranger” published in Industrial and Organizational Psychology. They conclude that, as the article’s title say, stigma based on gender exists. Read article here.

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Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Top-Line Estimates for Active-Duty Service Members from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study

National Defense Research Institute, Andrew R. Morral, Kristie L. Gore, Terry L. Schell, Lisa H. Jaycox, Bonnie Ghosh-Dastidar, Coreen Farris, Robin Beckman, Barbara Bicksler, Q Burkhart, Jennifer Hawes-Dawson, Marc N. Elliott, Caroline Batka, Jeffrey Hiday, Dean Kilpatrick, Stephan Kistler, Craig Martin, Amy Grace Peele, Amy Street, Terri Tanielian, Mark E. Totten and Kayla M. Williams. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2014.

This Rand study explored sexual assault, sexual harassment and gender discrimination among US military personnel. They explored how stigma impacted reporting rates and individuals’ willingness and ability to access support.

  • – Estimated 26 Percent of Active-Duty Women and 7 Percent of Active-Duty Men Experienced Sexual Harassment or Gender Discrimination in the Past Year
  • – 4.9 percent of active-duty women and 1 percent of active-duty men experienced one or more sexual assaults in the previous year

Read report here. 

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Males with eating disorders: Challenges for treatment and research

Andersen, Arnold E; Holman, John E. (1997). Psychopharmacology Bulletin33.3: 391-7.

Males represent only 10% of people who have eating disorders. Ameliorating stigma needs to be one of the factors addressed when treating them. Read abstract here. 

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Criminal Stigma, Race, Gender and Employment: An Expanded Assessment of the Consequences of Imprisonment for Employment

Scott H. Decker, SH., Spohn, C., Ortiz, NR., Hedberg, E. (2014.) US Department of Justice

The authors conducted an extensive multi-part research study on the impact of a criminal record on employment, with comparisons of Blacks, Whites and Hispanics, as well as often unexamined women. The study included an assessment of on-line job applications, in-person job interviews and surveys of employers. Read report here. 

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Not all my fault: Genetics, stigma, and personal responsibility for women with eating disorders

Easter, MM (2012.) Soc Sci Med ; 75(8): 1408–1416

This study explored how genetic framing of eating disorders and mental illness affected women’s perception of stigma and responsibility on their diagnoses. Read unedited article here.

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The Campus Sexual Assault (CSA) Study

Krebs, CP; Lindquist, CH; Warner, TD; Fisher, BS; Martin, SL (2007.) U.S. Department of Justice. NIJ Grant No. 2004-WG-BX-0010. Performance Period: January 2005 through December 2007.

The researchers used a variety of descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate techniques to analyze the CSA data, and were able to 1) generate prevalence estimates of different types of sexual assault, 2) identify factors associated with being a victim of different types of sexual assault, and 3) describe the contexts, consequences, and reporting of different types of sexual assault.  Read report here.

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A Model of (Often Mixed) Stereotype Content: Competence and Warmth Respectively Follow from Status and Competition

Fiske, S.T., A.J.C. Cuddy, P. Glick, and J. Xu. (2002.) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82(6): 878–902.

Stereotype Content Model hypothesizes that competence and warmth determine stereotyping, depending on the balance (high or low) of each. The researchers explored  gender, ethnicity, race, class, age, and disability as they pertained to various combinations of competence and warmth. Read article here. 

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