Research -

Do people avoid sitting next to someone who is facially disfigured?

Vicky Houston and Ray Bull (1994). European Journal of Social Psychology; 24, 2: 279–284.

The authors observed travelers on a suburban railway significantly avoiding sitting next to fellow travelers who had a facial port-wine stain. The researchers concluded that reported perceptions of people with facial differences that they are stigmatized is real.  Read abstract here.

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